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Presentation

Worldwide recommendations for “quality fuels” try to reduce the impact of motor vehicle on the environment through vehicle fleet emissions with optimized fuels.

VeryOne 2-EthylHexyl Nitrate, also called 2-EHN or Cetane Improver, helps to resolve the following equation:

  • Fuel production flexibility
  • Refineries and end-users savings
  • Increased performances of diesel fuels and diesel engines
  • Better environment protection

VeryOne is the world leading 2-EHN producer.

Our large production capacity (80 000 MT/year) and our logistic organization enable us to deliver a competitive product, in due time, any place in the world.

2-EHN has been produced by VeryOne in its Sorgues facility (France) since 1984.
Sorgues’ teams of experts have extensive experience in nitration reaction, and are able to conduct them in complete safety.
Located in the South-east of France, North of Avignon, the plant benefits from an excellent geographical location (convenient for raw material supply and product delivery).

How it works

2-Ethyl-Hexyl Nitrate (2-EHN), also called “Improver”, is a diesel fuel additive which improves Cetane number, and offers the best performance in the most competitive way.

A fuel’s Cetane number depends on a variety of parameters (type of crude oil, season, market situation…). Crude oil first goes through atmospheric distillation, which provides a good Cetane number. However, this process produces 20% to 80% of atmospheric residue. The issue is to find a way to recycle this residue.
To optimize their production, oil companies often recycle their heavy cuts by catalytic cracking to produce more gas and fuel (among other products). Such fuels have a low Cetane number. At refineries, diesel oil is often produced by mixing “cracked” oils with substances derived from the fractional distillation of crude oils.

The addition of 2-EHN helps to reach the required Cetane number, thus enabling the conversion of distillate heating oil to good diesel fuel.

2-EHN is being increasingly used to:

  • Upgrade diesel fuel quality to meet specification requirements, using increasing quantities of cracked components;
  • Upgrade diesel fuel quality to premium grade products currently marketed;
  • Provide process flexibility by allowing the use of low cetane naphtenic crude oils when dictated by geographic or economic conditions.

2-EHN is the most economical solution, as it gives refineries the most flexibility to reach the intended quality level, while maximizing diesel fuel production.

2-EHN decomposes in the combustion chamber to give free radicals, promoting fast oxidation and reducing ignition delay. The fuel’s Cetane number increase (CNI) depends on the base stock’s original Cetane number. However, as the base’s Cetane number decreases, so does the fuel’s response to CNI.
In other words, the fuels that most need CNI are also the least responsive to it.

Cetane number

This is the most universally accepted measure of ignition quality for diesel fuel.

In a diesel engine, fuel is not ignited with a spark plug. The piston compresses the air. It is the heat released during the compression which makes the fuel ignite in a shorter or longer period of time. Cetane number is a measure of the ease with which the atomised diesel fuel will ignite and burn, as the air in the engine cylinder is heated during the compression stroke.

Cetane number is a measure of the ease with which the atomised diesel fuel will ignite and burn, as the air in the engine cylinder is heated during the compression stroke. In other words, it determines the ignition quality of diesel fuel when injected in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine.

This value influences cold startability, fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and noise combustion:

  • As they will auto-ignite more readily, high Cetane number fuels will guarantee an easier engine start, a more complete combustion and a reduction of diesel consumption. This will, in turn, help to reduce pollutant smoke, hence better preserving the environment.
  • A higher Cetane number is also associated with lower rates of pressure rise in the engine cylinder during combustion. This leads to less severe shock loading of the piston/crankshaft members, which results in smoother performance and less potential wear. The characteristic diesel combustion “knock” is also reduced.

Since 2000, European specifications for diesel fuel require a Cetane number of 51 minimum.

Handling and Blending

2-EHN is completely soluble in diesel fuels.

It can be blended into fuels in the refinery, terminal tanks, tank wagons, or underground storage tanks. The same care should be exercised as with any fuel additive to insure good mixing with the fuel. For bulk treatment, in-line blending with controlled metering pumps will guarantee both accurate dosage levels and effective blending.

2-EHN should be handled with the same precautions as with aromatic hydrocarbon fuels. Avoid inhalation of and contact with the product by wearing protective gloves during blending in a well-ventilated area. Suitable respiratory equipment should be used in unventilated areas.

Quantities to be used

The quantities to be used are related to the Cetane number of the fuel before the addition of 2-EHN, and the Cetane number targeted after the addition of 2-EHN.

You will find below some test results that have been made on VeryOne 2-EHN: